Takasijainen velka, joka voi ratkaista sekä maksuvaikeudet että taseongelmat

Pääomalaina on nimitys lainalle, jonka osakeyhtiö voi nostaa tietyin erityisehdoin. Se on velkaa kuten muutkin velat – se pitää lähtökohtaisesti maksaa sovittuna eräpäivänä takaisin. Pääomalainan asema on velkojan kannalta kuitenkin heikompi kuin muiden velkojen (ns. takasijainen velka) eikä pääomalainalle saa asettaa esimerkiksi vakuutta.

Maksuvaikeuksissa olevalle ja tappiota tekevälle yhtiölle se voi olla tavanomaista velkaa parempi ratkaisu. Jos laina nimittäin täyttää kaikki osakeyhtiölaissa säädetyt edellytykset, se luokitellaan kyseisen lain näkökulmasta omaksi pääomaksi. Oman pääoman menettäminen rekisteröidään kaupparekisteriin, eikä kyseinen merkintä ainakaan helpota vaikeuksissa olevan yhtiön julkista asemaa, joten omaksi pääomaksi kirjattava pääomalaina voi ratkaista ongelman. Pääomalaina on yleensä varsin korkeakorkoista, joten ratkaisu ei ole toki ilmainen.

Sopimuskoneen velkakirjamalli huomioi osakeyhtiölain sääntelyn

Sopimus pääomalainasta on tehtävä kirjallisesti. Sopimuskoneen pääomalainan mallilla laadit vaivattomasti tarpeisiisi sopivan velkakirjan. Malli sisältää osakeyhtiölakiin pohjautuvat vakioehdot, jotka tekevät lainasta pääomalainan. Lisäksi malli sisältää juristiemme laatimat mallisisällöt (esim. takaisinmaksu, korko, viivästyskorko), jotka muuntuvat sen mukaan, miten vastaat Sopimuskoneen sinulle esittämiin kysymyksiin.

Pääomalainan velkakirjamallimme ei ole siis yksittäinen pohja tai lomakepohja vaan yhdistelmä kymmeniä eri pohjia. Se on älykäs, moderni velkakirjapohja, jolla allekirjoitusvalmis velkakirja syntyy kuin itsestään.

Tämä velkakirjamalli on englanniksi. Sama malli on saatavilla Sopimuskoneessa erikseen myös suomeksi.


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Promissory Note, Capital Loan

What is a capital loan?

For a company, a capital loan is a debt like any other – it must be repaid. From a creditor’s perspective, however, a capital loan is in a weaker position than other debts, and no security may be posted on capital loans, for example.

What are the benefits of a capital loan?

Under certain conditions, a capital loan may be counted as equity when determining whether the company’s equity is positive. If the equity is negative, i.e. the company has lost its equity, the company’s board of directors must immediately file a register notification with the Trade Register. Usually, all steps are taken to avoid registering a loss of equity. The position of a capital loan as an equity instrument will help with this.

For the creditor, a capital loan carries a higher risk than normal debt, which should be taken into account in the capital loan’s interest rate level. Risks and returns go hand in hand.

How are capital loans defined in the Limited Liability Companies Act?

The Limited Liability Companies Act sets the following three requirements that a loan needs to meet in order to be considered a capital loan:

  1. The principal and interest are subordinate to all other debts in the liquidation and bankruptcy of the company (subordination).

  2. The principal may be repaid and interest paid only in so far as the sum total of the unrestricted equity and all of the capital loans of the company at the time of payment exceed the loss on the balance sheet to be adopted for the latest financial period or the loss on the balance sheet from more recent financial statements.

  3. The company (or a subsidiary) shall not post security for the payment of the principal and interest.

The repayment of the principal, payment of interest or posting a security in violation of the above is considered unlawful distribution of assets.

How can I easily create a promissory note for a capital loan?

A capital loan agreement must be made in writing. Sopimustieto’s capital loan template allows you to easily create a promissory note for your needs. The template includes standard terms based on the Limited Liability Companies Act which ensure the loan is a capital loan. Furthermore, the template includes standard content (e.g. repayment, interest, penal interest on arrears) created by our lawyers which change according to your answers to Sopimustieto’s questions.

Our capital loan promissory note template is thus not a single template or form template, but a combination of dozens of different templates. It is a smart, modern promissory note template that you can use to create a tidy promissory note, ready for signing, with minimal effort.

How can the other party accept a promissory note I have created using Sopimustieto?

You can invite the other party to view your promissory note in Sopimustieto with an SMS or email. The party can accept the terms with its electronic signature that is a part of our service. All parties receive their own copy of the promissory note in digital format, which means that printing is not required.

Does a capital loan need to be repaid as part of possible insolvency proceedings?

Despite its subordination, the capital loan will be treated as a debt that must be repaid when the company is placed in liquidation or declared bankrupt. It also has priority over the distributive portions of the shareholders in case of a company demerger. The company’s inability to repay the capital loan during liquidation will result in the company being declared bankrupt.

Unless otherwise agreed between the company and the creditors of the capital loans, all capital loans have an equal right to the company’s assets.

How should you proceed if the interest on a capital loan cannot be paid?

If the interest agreed for a capital loan cannot be paid, the interest will be deferred to be paid on the basis of the first financial statements that allow it.

How is a capital loan treated in the company’s accounting?

A capital loan must be recognised as a separate item in the balance sheet. Apart from this, the Limited Liability Companies Act does not contain any provisions regarding the treatment of a capital loan in the company’s accounts; the answers can be found in the Accounting Act (or the IAS regulation, if it applies). For the purposes of accounting, a capital loan is primarily a liability. However, the loan may be recognised as equity under certain conditions.